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Kumpulan Contoh Descriptive Text Lengkap

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Kumpulan Contoh Descriptive Text Lengkap

1. The White Rhinoceros (Rhino)
 
The rhinoceros is a large, primitive looking mammal that in fact dates from the Miocene era millions of years ago. In recent decades rhinos have been relentlessly hunted to the point of near extinction. Since 1970 the world rhino population has declined by 90 percent, with five species remaining in the world today, all of which are endangered.

The white or square-lipped rhino is one of two rhino species in Africa. It in turn occurs as two subspecies, the southern and the northern. The southern dwindled almost to extinction in the early 20th century, but was protected on farms and reserves, enabling it to increase enough to be reintroduced. The northern white rhino has recovered in Democratic Republic of Congo from about 15 in 1984 to about 30 in the late 1990s. This population has been threatened by political conflict and instability.
There are two kinds of rhino who live in Africa, first is Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and second is White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). The white rhino's name derives from the Dutch "weit," meaning wide, a reference to its wide, square muzzle adapted for grazing. The white rhino, which is actually grey, has a pronounced hump on the neck and a long face. While the black, or hooked-lipped rhino, along with all other rhino species, is an odd-toed ungulate (three toes on each foot). It has a thick, hairless, grey hide. Both the black and white rhino have two horns, the longer of which sits at the front of the nose.

Rhino includes the bigest land mamals who live in africa besides elephant and other mamals. Rhino can live up to 35 to 40 years. The size of the rhinoceros stands about 60 inches at the shoulder. And the weight of Black Rhino is 1 to 1½ tons, while White Rhino is over 2 tons.
 
Diet description of The black rhino is a browser, with a triangular-shaped upper lip ending in a mobile grasping point. It eats a large variety of vegetation, including leaves, buds and shoots of plants, bushes and trees. While the white rhino is a grazer feeding on grasses.
 
Rhinos live in home ranges that sometimes overlap with each other. Feeding grounds, water holes and wallows may be shared. The black rhino is usually solitary. The white rhino tends to be much more gregarious. Rhinos are also rather ill-tempered and have become more so in areas where they have been constantly disturbed. While their eyesight is poor, which is why they will often charge without apparent reason, their sense of smell and hearing are very good.

They have an extended "vocabulary" of growls, grunts, squeaks, snorts and bellows. When attacking, the rhino lowers its head, snorts, breaks into a gallop reaching speeds of 30 miles an hour, and gores or strikes powerful blows with its horns. Still, for all its bulk, the rhino is very agile and can quickly turn in a small space.

The rhino has a symbiotic relationship with oxpeckers, also called tick birds. In Swahili the tick bird is named "askari wa kifaru," meaning "the rhino's guard." The bird eats ticks it finds on the rhino and noisily warns of danger. Although the birds also eat blood from sores on the rhino's skin and thus obstruct healing, they are still tolerated



African Giraffes are one of the world's tallest mammals. They are well known for their long necks, long legs, and spotted patterns. African Giraffes have small "horns" or knobs on top of their heads that grow to be about five inches long. These knobs are used to protect the head in fights.

Male giraffes are larger than females. Males weigh between 2,400 and 3,000 pounds and stand up to 19 feet tall! Female giraffes weigh between 1,600 and 2,600 pounds and grow to be 16 feet tall. Giraffe populations are relatively stable. Healthy giraffes live about 25 years in the wild.

African Giraffes can be found in central, eastern and southern Africa. African Giraffes live in the savannas of Africa, where they roam freely among the tall trees, arid land, dense forests and open plains.

Their long necks help giraffes eat leaves from tall trees, typically acacia trees. If they need to, giraffes can go for several days without water. Instead of drinking, giraffes stay hydrated by the moisture from leaves.
 
African Giraffes are non-territorial, social animals. They travel in large herds that are not organized in any way. Herds may consist of any combination of sexes or ages.

Female giraffes typically give birth to one calf after a fifteen-month gestation period. During the first week of its life, the mother carefully guards her calf. Young giraffes are very vulnerable and cannot defend themselves. While mothers feed, the young are kept in small nursery groups.

African Giraffes are hunted for their meat, coat and tails. The tail is prized for good luck bracelets, fly whisks and string for sewing beads. The coat is used for shield coverings. Habitat destruction and fragmentation are also threats to giraffe populations.

3. African Elephant

Elephant is the world's largest living land mammals which are best known for their huge size, unique body parts, social behavior, and longevity.
 
Two African elephant species are recognized: the larger and more widespread savanna elephant (L. africana), pictured here, and the forest elephant (L. cyclotis), which is smaller, has downward-pointed tusks, and smaller, rounder ears. Some genetic evidence suggests there may be a third species, the west African elephant, intermediate to these two. The animals' trunks, unique among living mammals, are versatile, enabling elephants to manipulate tiny objects or tear down huge tree limbs. Wide, padded feet enable elephants to walk quietly. Large, flappable ears help these huge animals to cool off, although elephants often must retreat to the shade or water during the hottest part of the day.
 
Male African elephants of the savanna species grow up to 25 feet long, stand up to 11 feet tall and weigh up to 14,000 pounds. Males are usually larger than females.
 
African elephants live in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, although their range is now broken into patches. Small numbers of forest elephants live in dense equatorial forests of Central Africa from Zaire west to Mauritania, while savanna elephants are far more widespread in drier woodlands and savannas. Savanna elephants are now most common in Kenya, Tanzania, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa. The suspected third species lives in both savanna and forest in west Africa.

African elephants live wherever they can find enough food and water with minimal disturbance from people. Most of the continent's elephants live on savannas and in dry woodlands. In some regions, they occur in desert areas; in others, they are found in mountains. In Congo and other equatorial countries, forest elephants live in dense tropical rainforest.

Females and young males live in cohesive herds of about ten related adults and their offspring. The matriarch, usually the oldest and largest female, sets the pace of the group's activities. Males leave herds at puberty, around their 13th year, and travel alone or in bachelor groups. Elephants travel widely in search of food. Movements vary depending upon food availability. African elephants communicate with rumbles, growls, bellows, and moans. Some of these varied, low-frequency sounds may travel a mile or more.

4. Panda

Have you ever wathc the cartoon movie "Kung fu Panda"?  But the Panda that would be described below is not the Panda who can do Kung fu like in that movie. Pada is the icon of the Chinese country becasue its unik. Here are the desciption about Panda.

Giant pandas are bear-like in shape with striking black and white markings. The "Giant" Pandas are hardly "Giants". It would take about forty (40) giant pandas to weigh as much as one elephant. Adult giant pandas have a length of 160 to 180 centimeters (5 1/4 to 6 feet). The weight of an adult male giant panda is normally between 80 and 125 kilograms (176 and 276 pounds) with males typically weighing about 10% to 20% more than females -- about the same size as theAmerican black bear. However, unlike the black bear, giant pandas do not hibernate and cannot walk on their hind legs.Giant panda bears have a massive head, heavy body, short tail (approximately 5 inches), rounded ears and plantigrade feet (i.e., both heel and toe make contact with the ground when walking in a manner similar to humans). The throat of the giant panda has an esophagus with a tough, horny lining to protect the bear from injury by bamboo splinters. The stomach is similarly protected with its thick muscular wall linings.Giant pandas have forepaws which are extremely flexible. They have an enlarged wrist bone (the radial sesamoid) that works in the manner of an opposable thumb. This highly functional thumb allows the panda to manipulate bamboo stems and leaves, with dexterity and precision. The hind feet of the giant panda lacks the heel pad found in the other seven bear species.

The basic fur color of the giant panda is white with black eye patches, ears, legs, feet, chest, and shoulders. White areas are different shades of white from pure white to orangish or a light brown. Within its natural environment (the deep forest and, at upper elevations, snow androck), its mottled coloringprovides camouflage. There is also speculation that its striking color pattern may be a clear message to other pandas to stay away since the giant panda is an extremely solitary animal.The fur of the giant panda is thick and coarse. It consists of a coarse outer layer and a very dense, wooly-like underfur. To the touch, the fur feels oily. This oily protective coating helps protects pandas from the cool and damp climate in which the bear lives.
 
Giant pandas generally move in a slow, determined manner. When startled, they will move at a slow trot to escape danger. Giant pandas, with their sharp claws, are capable of climbing trees very easily. Giant panda cubs are born weighing 3 to 5 ounces or about 4-5 grams each (1/900th of the mother's weight) The cubs are born blind and hairless. At about 10 days the skin where the black hair will eventually grow turns gray.


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